By Fong Michelle H. W.
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Extra resources for Bankcard Payment System in the People's Republic of China
The ambiguity of the Lao Tzu is such that it can quite comfortably accommodate both interpretations. While the notion that the political philosophy of Lao Tzu is "purposive" has a wide following, 22 the alternative interpretationthat the sage-ruler in his relationship to the people is analogous to the tao in its relationship to the myriad thingshas the positive feature of establishing consistency between the metaphysics and the political philosophy of the text. In chapters 10 and 51 a similarly worded passage is used to describe the sage and the tao respectively.
By focusing on the manner in which a philosopher construes history, it is possible to identify the aspects of human experience he invests with the greatest importance. History, far from being an objective account of incontrovertible fact, is a highly interpretative undertaking. The way in which philosophers interpret it often reveals their most fundamental presuppositions and the project that their philosophical speculations are meant to serve. Marx's economic interpretation of history in terms of dialectical materialism, for example, reveals both his fundamental philosophical categories and his ultimate concern: the realization of the classless society.
To the Legalist authors Shang Yang and Han Fei, laws and concomittent punishments are indispensable for social order because they intimidate the masses into compliance with what is necessary to maintain the state and the ruler. The ruler is beyond all laws, which are controlled by him to serve his interests, as Ames notes in his analysis (131-32). Huai-nan Tzu 9, at variance with both this position and the earlier primitivism of the Lao Tzu that regards laws as cultural evils, Page x stakes out a new position that manages to embrace both: The purpose of setting up a bureaucracy in antiquity was to prevent the people from doing just as they pleased.
Bankcard Payment System in the People's Republic of China by Fong Michelle H. W.