By Dr Ayse Zarakol
Now not being of the West; being in the back of the West; now not being glossy adequate; now not being built or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, obvious, or democratic - those descriptions have all served to stigmatize sure states via heritage. Drawing on constructivism in addition to the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in diplomacy may end up in a feeling of nationwide disgrace, in addition to auto-Orientalism and inferior prestige. Ay?e Zarakol argues that stigmatized states turn into extra-sensitive to issues approximately prestige, and form their overseas coverage consequently. The theoretical argument is supported through an in depth old assessment of critical examples of the established/outsider dichotomy during the evolution of the trendy states process, and in-depth stories of Turkey after the 1st global warfare, Japan after the second one international struggle, and Russia after the chilly conflict.
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Extra resources for After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West
While I do not claim to advance a proper theory of international society, there is an implicit argument about society underlying the discussions of stigmatization in this book. ” Socialization driven by a desire to escape stigmatization can actually perpetuate the established-outsider figuration. However, the presence of the desire to emulate is itself telling because it means that the actor has internalized the judgment of the larger society. ” Obviously, this variant of constructivism is intimately linked with the new generation of English Scholarship mentioned in the previous footnote and vice versa.
G. Modernity and the Holocaust ; Modernity and Ambivalence. Wight, Systems of States, p. 135. Elias, Civilizing Process; Ruggie, “Territoriality and Beyond,” 162. Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, p. 5; see also Collins, From Divine Cosmos, pp. 4, 6, 7, 28, 29, 32. Blaney and Inayatullah, “Westphalian Deferral,” 32. g. on p. 158: “What was true in the visual arts was equally true in politics: political space came to be defi ned as it appeared from a single fi xed viewpoint. g. Keene, Beyond Anarchical Society; Reus-Smit, Moral Purpose.
371. The uniqueness of this universalizing, “scientific,” evidentiary (and therefore seemingly indisputable) character of the modern worldview is what Bull misses in the numerous claims he makes about the nature of the nineteenthcentury European society of states; for instance, in his foreword to Gong’s Standard of “Civilisation”, p. ” I will have more to say about this distinction in Chapter 2 . Gellner, Nationalism, pp. 21–3. 40 Outsiders and insiders in the international system increasing integration of various spheres of social life – all previously thought to have their own separate essences and rules – into one universal ontology.
After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West by Dr Ayse Zarakol