By Shirley A. Hill
In the context of turning out to be range, Shirley A. Hill examines the paintings mom and dad do in elevating their young ones. according to interviews and survey information, African American Children comprises blacks of varied social sessions in addition to a comparative pattern of whites. It covers significant parts of kid socialization: educating values, self-discipline ideas, gender socialization, racial socialization, prolonged households -- displaying how either race and sophistication make a distinction, and emphasizing styles that problem present study that perspectives black households as a monolithic team.
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Extra info for African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families
Female slaves worked as hard as their male counterparts, often as field hands, and had the bulk o f the responsibility for child care and family w o r k . Involuntary sexual liaisons between slave w o m e n and white men were c o m m o n occurrences; in fact, Kardiner and Ovesey ( 1 9 5 1 ) have n o t e d that much o f the white males' fear o f black men was r o o t e d in the former's extensive use o f black w o m e n as sexual partners, mistresses, and nursemaids for their children. Similarly, Hymowitz and Weissman ( 1 9 7 8 , p.
Because these studies focused mostly on p o o r blacks, their perspective contributed t o the social deficit model o f the black family. However, studies o f child rearing that included p o o r and middle-class black families typically found the latter to be surprisingly similar to the dominant society in their value system and family organization. For the liberal scholars o f the pre-civil rights era, this was powerful evidence that social and e c o n o m i c opportunities were the keys to ending most o f the problems found among black people.
H e and other behaviorists argued that a child's development was shaped solely by responses to stimuli or the reinforcement o f certain b e haviors. Social psychologists such as George Herbert M e a d contributed t o the understanding o f h o w the social self was developed, making the notion o f developing a positive self-concept an integral part o f childhood socialization. Because the ideology o f the traditional, child-centered family eventually prevailed—although for many Americans not until the 1 9 5 0 s — i t is easy t o overstate the consensus surrounding its importance during the early twentieth century.
African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families by Shirley A. Hill