By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov
This monograph is dedicated to the activation and numerous changes of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), i.e. reactions followed through the C--H and C--C bond cleavage. Alkanes are the most elements of oil and ordinary gasoline, and for that reason are the imperative feedstocks for the chemical undefined. nevertheless, those elements are identified to be the least reactive natural compounds. precise consciousness is paid to the lately discovered alkane activations in the presence of steel complexes, that are defined in additional aspect. as well as the reactions of saturated hydrocarbons that are the major subject of this booklet, the activation of C--H bonds in arenes or even olefins and acetylenes are thought of. The monograph could be invaluable not just if you have an interest in the activation of alkanes and different hydrocarbons through steel complexes, but additionally for experts in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, petrochemistry, and organometallic chemistry. a few elements of the monograph could be of curiosity for experts in inorganic and natural chemistry, theoretical chemistry, biochemistry or even biology, and additionally in the event you paintings within the petrochemical undefined, commercial natural synthesis and biotechnology.
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Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 3723. (e) Fendrick, C. ; Marks, T. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 2214. (f) Jones, W. ; Feher, F. J. Organometallics 1983, 2, 562. (g) Green, M. L. H. J. Chem. , Dalton Trans. 1986, 2469. Watson, P. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 6491. 14. Shul’pin, G. ; Nizova, G. ; Nikitaev, A. T. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984, 276, 115. 15. (a) Renneke, R. ; Hill, C. L. Angew. Chem. 1988, 100, 1583. (b) Periana, R. ; Taube, D. ; Evitt, E. ; Löffer, D. ; Wentrecek, P. ; Masuda, T. Science, 1993, 259, 340.
25, respectively. Modern theoretical analysis gives more complicated and more precise, but also approximate formulae. According to Denisov , the dependence of the activation energy on enthalpy is expressed by the formula: 28 CHAPTER II (Refs. p. 69) Here is a coefficient which is constant for each pair of fixed bonds, the one being cleaved, and the other being formed; is a parameter also constant for a given series of reactions and not very different for different classes of reactions. The latter formula gives non-linear dependence of activation energy on the reaction’s enthalpy; whereas, less precise Polanyi-Semenov rule predicts a linear dependence: Nevertheless, the thermodynamics of these reactions remain an important basis for their kinetic characteristics.
9 [34d]. Although liquid-phase oxidations of alkanes can be carried out even in the absence of any metal derivative (the role of an initiator of chain radical process can be played by a non-metal compound), derivatives of transition metals are often used in these reactions. Metal-catalyzed autoxidation will be considered in Chapter IX. Liquid-phase oxidation of butane (in acetic acid as a solvent) is a commercial method of acetic acid production. The mechanism of the initial stage of the process initiated by is the following : Transformations in the Absence of Metals 51 Alkylarenes can be oxidized with molecular oxygen at 70-140° C if ion and tertiary ammonium salts are present in the solution .
Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes Category should be: CHEMISTRY by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov