By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reviews ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse beneficial properties of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological beneficial properties, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in old and areal standpoint.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Chemna ‘our father’ c. 2. P HONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN DERIVED W ORDS . Cupeño, being largely agglutinative in type, is not exceptionally rich in morphophonological processes, at least by the standards of Native American languages. However, there are a few processes that alter the underlying shapes of morphemes when they appear in word constructions. These include stress alternations, vowel deletions and epentheses, vowel harmonies, and consonant modifications, deletions, and epentheses. In addition, two types of verb constructions, the imperative and the habilitative, exhibit phonological behaviors that require detailed discussion.
In (60a), the a of the suffix -qat has been lost, while in (60b), where a super-heavy syllable would result from deletion, it is retained. Again, there is an etymological argument that the a is an original vowel: the suffix -qat ultimately is from PUA *-ka ‘agentive’ (Heath 1998), nominalized with the non-possessed noun suffix -t. It is represented throughout the grammar simply as -qat, to avoid undue complexity. It is an i-ablauting suffix; the -i augment appears in (60a) with the root meq(a(n)) -s ‘kill a single victim’.
T HE SEGMENTAL INVENTORY : C ONSONANTS . 1 shows the segmental inventory of Cupeño consonants. The table includes as distinct segments two major allophonic pairs, [tS] alternating with [S] and [kµ] alternating with [qµ], since these allophones are distinguished in the practical orthography in accordance with speaker preference. Phonetic symbols are given in square brackets where they differ from the symbols used in the practical orthography. 4. The asterisk indicates sounds that appear only in loanwords, which are primarily from Spanish.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill