By E. Anderson
Drawing on 1000's of interviews with 15-22 yr outdated instantly and homosexual male athletes in either the U.S. and the uk, this publication explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and not worry being idea homosexual for behaviors that limited males of the former new release.
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Extra info for 21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality
Gay men are at the bottom of the hierarchy, and straight men who behave in ways that conflict with this valorized masculinity are marginalized. Thus, according to this model, homophobia is a particularly effective weapon to stratify men in deference to a hegemonic mode of heteromasculine dominance (Connell 1995). While this has been a model with great utility for two decades, hegemonic masculinity theory today now not only fails to describe why patriarchy exists, but it no longer accounts for how men organize themselves socially either.
Christianity used the hysteria about homosexuality to milk money from callers who could donate with their credit cards over their new push-button phones. Unfortunately, this further helped inspire Christianity to move from the pulpits and into the political arena. The true propellant for homohysteria, however, came in the form of a virus. In the early 1980s AIDS brought such visibility that it solidified in every citizen’s mind that homosexuals existed in great numbers. It secured a public awareness that homosexuals lived and worked alongside “the normals” in every social institution.
Epstein et al. ” This is accomplished through the repeated association with cultural codes of heterosexuality and disassociation from codes for homosexuality. It can be found in: • • • • • • • A willingness to commit violence to self and others Emotional stoicism Always being willing to fight Separation from anything coded as feminine A sequestering into certain sports, arts, and entertainment choices Limiting physical contact with other men Positioning oneself as being 100 per cent straight But if gay male athletes, who are stigmatized as being feminine, can be as strong and competitive as heterosexual male athletes, they could threaten the perceived distinctions between gay men and straight men, and thus the perceived differences between men and women as a whole.
21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality by E. Anderson